Excerpt from “Cross-Cultural Traces Of Vedic Civilization”
The ancient Greek writer Aratos tells the following
story about the constellation Virgo, or the virgin. Virgo, he says, may
have belonged to the star race, the forefathers of the ancient stars. In
primeval times, in the golden age, she lived among mankind as Justice personified
and would exhort people to adhere to the truth. At this time people lived
peacefully, without hypocrisy or quarrel. Later, in the age of silver,
she hid herself in the mountains, but occasionally she came down to berate
people for their evil ways. Finally the age of bronze came. People invented
the sword, and “they tasted the meat of cows, the first who did it.” At
this point Virgo “flew away to the sphere”; that is, she departed for the
The Vedic literature of India gives an elaborate description of the universe as a cosmos—a harmonious, ordered system created according to an intelligent plan as a habitation for living beings. The modern view of the universe is so different from the Vedic view that the latter is presently difficult to comprehend. In ancient times, however, cosmologies similar to the Vedic system were widespread among people all over the world. Educated people of today tend to immediately dismiss these systems of thought as mythology, pointing to their diversity and their strange ideas as proof that they are all simply products of the imagination.
If we do this, however, we may be overlooking important information that could shed light on the vast forgotten period that precedes the brief span of recorded human history. There is certainly much evidence of independent storytelling in the traditions of various cultures, but there are also many common themes. Some of these themes are found in highly developed form in the Vedic literature. Their presence in cultures throughout the world is consistent with the idea that in the distant past, Vedic culture exerted worldwide influence.
In this article we will give some examples of Vedic ideas concerning time and human longevity that appear repeatedly in different traditions. First we will examine some of these ideas, and then we will discuss some questions about what they imply and how they should be interpreted.
In the Vedic literature time is regarded as a manifestation of Krishna, the Supreme Being. As such, time is a controlling force that regulates the lives of living beings in accordance with a cosmic plan. This plan involves repeating cycles of creation and destruction of varying durations. The smallest and most important of these repeating cycles consists of four yugas, or ages, called Satya, Treta, Dvapara, and Kali. In these successive ages mankind gradually descends from a high spiritual platform to a degraded state. Then, with the beginning of a new Satya-yuga, the original state of purity is restored, and the cycle begins again.
The story of Virgo illustrates that in the ancient Mediterranean world there was widespread belief in a similar succession of four ages, known there as the ages of gold, silver, bronze, and iron. In this system humanity also starts out in the first age in an advanced state of consciousness and gradually becomes degraded. Here also, the progressive developments in human society are not simply evolving by physical processes, but are superintended by a higher controlling intelligence. . . .
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|1.||Sachau, E. C., trans., 1964, Alberuni’s India, Delhi: S. Chand & Co., pp. 383–84.|
Copyright © 2004 by Richard L. Thompson